Henryk Zygalski, a mathematician, an outstanding cryptologist, a member of a small team of Polish specialists who in the early 1930s violated the principle of the German cipher machine called ‘Enigma’ (Greek: ainigma, riddle, mystery; Latin: secret mystery; German: Änigma). Marian Rejewski and Jerzy Różycki also belonged to the team of cryptologists.
It was a portable mechanical device in the shape of a suitcase, containing a keyboard
(as in a typewriter), a system of encryption drums with 26 letters on the periphery, and a rotary mechanism. The machine enabled both very fast encryption and reading of content. In addition, an electronic switch with 26 pairs of sockets was installed in the device, which introduced additional connections between the reels, thus increasing the number of ciphers to the user’s choice (4 x 1026 combinations), which increased as the system was modified and improved.